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Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: HUVEC

(A) Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, HUVEC. (B) HUVEC immunolabeled with VEGFR2 antibodies (green). (C) HUVEC stained with DiI-Ac-LDL (red), the acetylated apoprotein specifically recognized and endocytosed by endothelial cells. (D) HUVEC form vessel-like CD31/PECAM positive (green) structures when cultured with Human Dermal Fibroblasts in the presence of VEGF.  Nuclei are visualized with PI (B red) or DAPI (D, blue).

HUVECHuman Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) provide a classic model system to study many aspects of endothelial function and disease, such as normal, abnormal and tumor-associated angiogenesis, oxidative stress, hypoxia and inflammation related pathways in endothelia under normal and pathological conditions, cardiovascular-related complications associated with various diseases, mode of action and cardiovascular protection effects of various compounds, etc.


Select HUVEC lots have been tested to demonstrate stimulation-dependent angiogenesis and key endothelial cell signaling pathways (phosphorylation of VEGFR, Akt, MAPK, and expression of Tie2, eNOS, Axl and Etk/Bmx).  More information about pre-screened endothelial cells can be found on the Pre-Screened Endothelial Cell Product Page.

HUVEC from Cell Applications, Inc. have been utilized in numerous research publications, for example, to:

  • understand the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL, and demonstrate for the first time that mature miRNA can control gene expression in a cell where it is neither transcribed nor processed (Tabet, 2014);
  • show that abnormal matrix composition characteristic for systemic sclerosis leads to reduced proliferation, reduced NO-to-O2- ratio, increased apoptosis, and altered protein expression associated with endothelial to mesenchymal transition, all leading to impaired vascular function and angiogenesis (Xu, 2011);
  • discover a novel mechanism of inhibiting tumor angiogenesis that involves blocking VEGFR-2 kinase activity and decreasing FAK and Akt signaling by azurin-derived peptide leading to reduced remodeling of cytoskeleton and cellular adhesions, limiting migration abilities of the endothelial cells (Mehta, 2011);
  • show that ephrinB2-Fc inhibited tumor angiogenesis by down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and reducing proliferation of endothelial cells, and by reducing VEGF expression in tumor cells (Kimura, 2009) and investigate various other aspects of tumor-associated angiogenesis and metastasis (Shibata, 2006a, b; Ali, 2007; Hong, 2007; Zhang, 2010; Jane, 2011; Rivera, 2011; Rössler, 2011; Sanna, 2011; Shao, 2012; Takino, 2012);
  • show that matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) activation promotes VEGFR2 expression and proliferation of endothelial cells through stimulation of PAR-1 and activation of NF-kB (Mazor, 2013) and, conversely, during prolonged hypoxia activated CREB and NF-kB can induce MMP-1 expression stimulating endothelial migration (Nakayama, 2013a, b);
  • investigate the role of NF-κB and JNK in ICAM-1 expression (Miho, 2005);
  • identify Let-7 and miR-103/107 as microRNAs induced in endothelial cells in response to hypoxia and show that they target argonaute 1 which results in desuppression of VEGF mRNA translation and increased angiogenesis (Chen, 2013); and develop a bubble lyposome based system that enables both therapeutic  miRNA delivery and ultrasound monitoring (Endo-Takahashi, 2014);
  • demonstrate that commercially used flame retardants cause oxidative stress in endothelial cells by reducing expression of the antioxidant system genes, i.e., thioredoxin family, thioredoxin-interacting protein, DHCR24, and p53 (Kawashiro, 2009);
  • demonstrate that hyperglycemia increases uncoupled ER and oxidative stresses leading to endothelial dysfunction (Sheikh-Ali, 2010a, b), partially due to depletion of antioxidants and affected by fatty acids (Horani, 2004, 2006), and that glycemic control normalizes VEGFR-2 levels in ischemia and improves perfusion recovery (Docun, 2013);
  • discover that SIRT3 deacetylates FOXO3 to protect mitochondria against oxidative stress (Tseng, 2013);
  • suggest that elevated levels of free fatty acids cause prothrombotic state  in patients with metabolic syndrome by inhibiting TM–EPCR–Protein C system in endothelia through activating JNK signaling (Xie, 2012);
  • show that Alzheimer’s β-amyloid peptide exhibits anti-angiogenic properties by blocking VEGF signaling via direct interaction with VEGFR-2 (Patel, 2010);
  • characterize molecular composition and signaling potential of membrane vesicles released by autophagic endothelial cells in response to stress (Pallet, 2013);
  • show that inhibition of aldose reductase prevents the VEGF-and FGF- induced secretion of IL-6, MMP2, MMP9, ICAM, and VCAM, and inhibits migration and formation of capillary-like structures by endothelial cells (Tammali, 2011);
  • identify p2y5 as a novel LPA receptor, mediating endothelial cell contraction upon treatment with LPA (Yanagida, 2009);
  • demonstrate that stathmin, a microtubule destabilization protein, is required for accumulation of HIF-1a and hypoxia-induced VEGF expression by acting through the PI3K/Akt pathway (Yoshie, 2009);
  • investigate effects of molecular mobility of the outmost material surfaces on cellular adhesion and organization (Kakinoki, 2012) and to identify temporal differences in Erk1/2, JNK, Akt1, and NFκB signaling in cells cultured on different ECM components (Pauken, 2011);
  • investigate mechanisms of cardiovascular protection exerted by bioactive plant and fungal components, in particular showing that fungal metabolite Tetrahydroauroglaucin and sesame lignin sesaminol-6-catehcol  suppressed expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells activated with TNF-α (Miyake, 2010, Mochizuki, 2010);
  • show that in low doses coumaric acid and resveratrol protect endothelial cells from ROS, but at higher doses they elicit a pro-oxidant effect mediated by activation of flavin oxidases and subsequent CYP2C9-mediated Akt downregulation, leading to cell damage and apoptosis (Pasciu, 2010; Cossu, 2012), and also to characterize beneficial effects of repeated low doses of resveratrol on endothelial cells (Takizawa, 2013);
  • show that combined treatment with melatonin and atorvastatin reversed lipopolysaccharide-induced damage to the endothelial cells by restoring NO synthase expression and reducing free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and interleukin-6 levels (Dayoub, 2011);
  • discover that deferoxamine (DFO), an iron-chelating agent, mitigated the deleterious effects of radiation on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo (Donneys, 2012);
  • show that low activity of endothelial DHFR and use of folate supplements limit the benefits of BH4 therapies aimed at normalizing NO synthesis and reducing oxidative stress (Whitsett, 2013);
  • study the differential effects of wood smoke and diesel exhaust particles (Forchhammer, 2012), as well as carbon nanotubes (Cao, 2014) on inducing oxidative stress and production of cytokines and adhesion molecules in endothelia;
  • develop scaffolds for tissue engineering (Nivison-Smith, 2010; Cha, 2013);
  • confirm SPNS2 role as a transporter for S1P, a bioactive lipid, by monitoring S1P release from HUVEC and HPAEC, both obtained from Cell Applications, Inc., and by showing that S1P was not released when SPNS2 was silenced with siRNA (Hisano, 2013).   Additionally, quantitative real-time PCR indicated that Spns2 mRNA was transcribed at higher levels in venous HUVEC compared to arterial HPAEC, suggesting heterogeneity in the expression level of SPNS2 among different vascular beds.
Human normal umbilical vein.
Each lot is tested negative for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, mycoplasma, bacteria, and fungi.
Cryopreserved ampoule:
Primary culture, >500,000 cells in Endothelial Cell Basal Medium containing 10% FBS & 10% DMSO.
Kit contains:
Ampoule of cryopreserved HUVEC (200-05n), 500 ml Endothelial Cell Growth Medium (211-500), and a Subculture Reagent Kit (090K).
Proliferating Cells:
Shipped in Endothelial Cell Transfer Medium at 1st passage in either flasks or multiwell dishes.
Population doublings:
Can be cultured at least 16 doublings

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Sasahira, T., N. Ueda, K. Yamamoto, M. Kurihara, S. Matsushima, U.K. Bhawal, T. Kirita, and H. Kuniyasu. 2014. Prox1 and FOXC2 Act as Regulators of Lymphangiogenesis and Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. PloS one. 9:e92534.
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Tabet, F., K.C. Vickers, L.F. Cuesta Torres, C.B. Wiese, B.M. Shoucri, G. Lambert, C. Catherinet, L. Prado-Lourenco, M.G. Levin, S. Thacker, P. Sethupathy, P.J. Barter, A.T. Remaley, and K.-A. Rye. 2014. HDL-transferred microRNA-223 regulates ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Nat Commun. 5:10.1038/ncomms4292.
Takemoto, K., S. Kamisuki, P. Chia, I. Kuriyama, Y. Mizushina, and F. Sugawara. 2014. Bioactive Dihydronaphthoquinone Derivatives from Fusarium solani. J Nat Prod, 77:1992-1996.
Yin, C., Y. Liang, S. Guo, X. Zhou, and X. Pan. 2014. CCN1 enhances angiogenic potency of bone marrow transplantation in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia. Molecular Biology Reports, 41:5813-5818.
Zhen, A., S. Krutzik, B. Levin, S. Kasparian, J. Zack, and X. Kitchen. 2014. CD4 ligation on human blood monocytes triggers macrophage differentiation and enhances HIV infection. J Virol, 88:9934-9946.
Cha, B.G., H.W. Kwak, A.R. Park, S.H. Kim, S.Y. Park, H.J. Kim, I.S. Kim, K.H. Lee, and Y.H. Park. 2013. Structural characteristics and biological performance of silk fibroin nanofiber containing microalgae spirulina extract 6. Peptide Science:DOI: 10.1002/bip.22359.
Chen, Z., T.C. Lai, Y.H. Jan, F.M. Lin, W.C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y.T. Wang, W. Sun, X. Cui, Y.S. Li, T. Fang, H. Zhao, C. Padmanabhan, R. Sun, D.L. Wang, H. Jin, G.Y. Chau, H.D. Huang, M. Hsiao, and J.Y.J. Shyy. 2013. Hypoxia-responsive miRNAs target argonaute 1 to promote angiogenesis. The Journal of clinical investigation. 123:1057-1067.
Kaakinen, M., S. Huttunen, L. Paavolainen, V. MarjomÄKi, J. HeikkilÄ, and L. Eklund. 2013. Automatic detection and analysis of cell motility in phase-contrast time-lapse images using a combination of maximally stable extremal regions and Kalman filter approaches. Journal of Microscopy. 253:65-78.
Lohr, N.L., J.T. Ninomiya, D.C. Warltier, and D.e. Weihrauch. 2013. Far red/near infrared light treatment promotes femoral artery collateralization in the ischemic hindlimb 2. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 62:36-42.
Mazor, R., T. Alsaigh, H. Shaked, A.E. Altshuler, E.S. Pocock, E.B. Kistler, M. Karin, and G.W. Schmid-Sch+Ýnbein. 2013. Matrix metalloproteinase-1-mediated up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-2 in endothelial cells. The Journal of biological chemistry. 288:598-607.
Nakayama, K. 2013a. cAMP-response Element-binding Protein (CREB) and NF-κB Transcription Factors Are Activated during Prolonged Hypoxia and Cooperatively Regulate the Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP1. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288:22584-22595.
Nakayama, K. 2013b. CREB and NF-κB are activated during prolonged hypoxia and cooperatively regulate the induction of matrix metalloproteinase MMP1. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288:22584-22589.
Pallet, N., I. Sirois, C. Bell, L.l.A.c. Hanafi, K. Hamelin, M. Dieud+ª, C. Rondeau, P. Thibault, M. Desjardins, and M.J.e. Hebert. 2013. A comprehensive characterization of membrane vesicles released by autophagic human endothelial cells 7. PROTEOMICS. 13:1108-1120.
Takizawa, Y., Y. Kosuge, H. Awaji, E. Tamura, A. Takai, T. Yanai, R. Yamamoto, K. Kokame, T. Miyata, and R. Nakata. 2013. Up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) and autophagy-related genes by repeated treatments with resveratrol in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The British journal of nutrition:1-6.
Tseng, A.H.H., S.-S. Shieh, and D.L. Wang. 2013. SIRT3 deacetylates FOXO3 to protect mitochondria against oxidative damage. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 63:222-234.
Vargas-Pinto, R., H. Gong, A. Vahabikashi, and M. Johnson. 2013. The Effect of the Endothelial Cell Cortex on Atomic Force Microscopy Measurements 3. Biophysical Journal. 105:300-309.
Whitsett, J., A. Rangel Filho, S. Sethumadhavan, J. Celinska, M. Widlansky, and J. Vasquez-Vivar. 2013. Human endothelial dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 63:143-150.
Dayoub, J.C., F. Ortiz, L.C. L+Ýpez, C. Venegas, A. del Pino-Zumaquero, O. Roda, I. S+¡nchez-Montesinos, D.o. Acu+Ýa-Castroviejo, and G. Escames. 2011. Synergism between melatonin and atorvastatin against endothelial cell damage induced by lipopolysaccharide 9. Journal of Pineal Research. 51:324-330.
Jane, E.P., D.R. Premkumar, and I.F. Pollack. 2011. Bortezomib Sensitizes Malignant Human Glioma Cells to TRAIL, Mediated by Inhibition of the NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 10:198-208.
Konakahara, S., M. Saitou, S. Hori, T. Nakane, K. Murai, R. Itoh, A. Shinsaka, J. Kohroki, T. Kawakami, M. Kajikawa, and Y. Masuho. 2011. A neuronal transmembrane protein LRFN4 induces monocyte/macrophage migration via actin cytoskeleton reorganization. FEBS letters. 585:2377-2384.
Mehta, R.R., T. Yamada, B.N. Taylor, K. Christov, M.L. King, D. Majumdar, F. Lekmine, C. Tiruppathi, A. Shilkaitis, and L. Bratescu. 2011. A cell penetrating peptide derived from azurin inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth by inhibiting phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, FAK and Akt. Angiogenesis. 14:355-369.
Mikkelsen, L., M. Sheykhzade, K.A. Jensen, A.T. Saber, N.R. Jacobsen, U. Vogel, H. Wallin, S. Loft, and P. Moller. 2011. Modest effect on plaque progression and vasodilatory function in atherosclerosis-prone mice exposed to nanosized TiO2. Part Fibre Toxicol. 8:32.
Mukai, R., H. Ashida, J. Terao, and N. Saito. 2011. Determination of Subcellular Localization of Flavonol in Cultured Cells by Laser Scanning. In Laser Scanning, Theory and Applications. C. Wang (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-205-0.
Pauken, C.M., and M.R. Caplan. 2011. Temporal differences in Erk1/2 activity distinguish among combinations of extracellular matrix components. Acta Biomaterialia. 7:3973-3980.
Rivera, V.M., R.M. Squillace, D. Miller, L. Berk, S.D. Wardwell, Y. Ning, R. Pollock, N.I. Narasimhan, J.D. Iuliucci, and F. Wang. 2011. Ridaforolimus (AP23573; MK-8669), a potent mTOR inhibitor, has broad antitumor activity and can be optimally administered using intermittent dosing regimens. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 10:1059-1071.
Rössler, J., Y. Monnet, F. Farace, P. Opolon, E. Daudigeos-Dubus, A. Bourredjem, G. Vassal, and B. Geoerger. 2011. The selective VEGFR1-3 inhibitor axitinib (AG-013736) shows antitumor activity in human neuroblastoma xenografts. International Journal of Cancer. 128:2748-2758.
Sanna, V., G. Pintus, A.M. Roggio, S. Punzoni, A.M. Posadino, A. Arca, S. Marceddu, P. Bandiera, S. Uzzau, and M. Sechi. 2011. Targeted biocompatible nanoparticles for the delivery of (−)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate to prostate cancer cells. Journal of medicinal chemistry. 54:1321-1332.
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Xu, H., M. Zaidi, J. Struve, D.W. Jones, J.G. Krolikowski, S. Nandedkar, N.L. Lohr, A. Gadicherla, P.S. Pagel, M.E. Csuka, K.A. Pritchard, and D. Weihrauch. 2011. Abnormal fibrillin-1 expression and chronic oxidative stress mediate endothelial mesenchymal transition in a murine model of systemic sclerosis. American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology. 300:C550-C556.
Yoshikawa, A., Y. Aizaki, K.-i. Kusano, F. Kishi, T. Susumu, S. Iida, S. Ishiura, S. Nishimura, M. Shichiri, and T. Senbonmatsu. 2011. The (pro)renin receptor is cleaved by ADAM19 in the Golgi leading to its secretion into extracellular space. Hypertension research. 34:599-605.
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Lionetti, V., S. Cantoni, C. Cavallini, F. Bianchi, S. Valente, I. Frascari, E. Olivi, G. Aquaro, F. Bonavita, I. Scarlata, M. Maioli, V. Vaccari, R. Tassinari, A. Bartoli, F. Recchia, G. Pasquinelli, and C. Ventura. 2010. Hyaluronan Mixed Esters of Butyric and Retinoic Acid Affording Myocardial Survival and Repair without Stem Cell Transplantation. JBC, 285:9949-9961.
Miyake, Y., M. Mochizuki, C. Ito, M. Itoigawa, and T. Osawa. 2010. Peroxynitrite Scavengers Produced by Filamentous Fungus Used in the Katsuobushi Manufacturing Process. Food science and technology research. 16:493-498.
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Nivison-Smith, L., J. Rnjak, and A.S. Weiss. 2010. Synthetic human elastin microfibers: Stable cross-linked tropoelastin and cell interactive constructs for tissue engineering applications. Acta Biomaterialia. 6:354-359.
Pasciu, V., A.M. Posadino, A. Cossu, B. Sanna, B. Tadolini, L. Gaspa, A. Marchisio, S. Dessole, G. Capobianco, and G. Pintus. 2010. Akt Downregulation by Flavin Oxidase–Induced ROS Generation Mediates Dose-Dependent Endothelial Cell Damage Elicited by Natural Antioxidants. Toxicological Sciences. 114:101-112.
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Yoshie, M., E. Miyajima, S. Kyo, and K. Tamura. 2009. Stathmin, a Microtubule Regulatory Protein, Is Associated with Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Levels in Human Endometrial and Endothelial Cells. Endocrinology. 150:2413-2418.
Kim, C.-S., S.-B. Jung, A. Naqvi, T.A. Hoffman, J. DeRicco, T. Yamamori, M.P. Cole, B.-H. Jeon, and K. Irani. 2008. P53 Impairs Endothelium-Dependent Vasomotor Function Through Transcriptional Upregulation of P66shc. Circulation research. 103:1441-1450.
Madasamy, S. 2008. Multi-subunit biological complexes for treatment of plaque-associated diseases. Patent Application US 20090104121 A1.
Rocha, F.G., C.A. Sundback, N.J. Krebs, J.K. Leach, D.J. Mooney, S.W. Ashley, J.P. Vacanti, and E.E. Whang. 2008. The effect of sustained delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor on angiogenesis in tissue-engineered intestine. Biomaterials. 29:2884-2890.
Syeda, F., E. Tullis, A.S. Slutsky, and H. Zhang. 2008. Human neutrophil peptides upregulate expression of COX-2 and endothelin-1 by inducing oxidative stress. Am J Physiol 294:H2769-H2774.
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Cryopreserved HUVEC, fetal

Cat. #
Cryopreserved HUVEC, fetal Each kit contains an ampoule of >500,000 cryopreserved cells (200-05f), 500 ml of Endothelial Cell Growth Medium (211-500), a Subculture Reagent Kit. 1 Kit 200K-05f $464.00
Cryopreserved HUVEC, fetal 1 Ampoule 200-05f $325.00

Cryopreserved HUVEC, neonatal

Cat. #
Cryopreserved HUVEC, neonatal Each kit contains an ampoule of >500,000 cryopreserved cells (200-05n), 500 ml of Endothelial Cell Growth Medium (211-500), a Subculture Reagent Kit. 1 Kit 200K-05n $389.00
Cryopreserved HUVEC, neonatal 1 Ampoule 200-05n $250.00

Cryopreserved HUVEC, pooled

Cat. #
Cryopreserved HUVEC, pooled Each kit contains an ampoule of >500,000 cryopreserved cells (200p-05n), 500 ml of Endothelial Cell Growth Medium (211-500), a Subculture Reagent Kit. 1 Kit 200pK-05n $324.00
Cryopreserved HUVEC, pooled Ampoule of >500,000 cryopreserved pooled HUVEC. 1 Ampoule 200p-05n $185.00

Proliferating HUVEC, fetal

Cat. #
Proliferating HUVEC, fetal 6 well 201-6Wf $515.00
Proliferating HUVEC, fetal 96 wells 201-96Wf $635.00
Proliferating HUVEC, fetal Cultured at first passage in Endothelial Cell Growth Medium and shipped in Endothelial Cell Transfer Medium. T-25 Flask 201-25f $325.00
Proliferating HUVEC, fetal T-75 Flask 201-75f $515.00

Proliferating HUVEC, neonatal

Cat. #
Proliferating HUVEC, neonatal Cultured at first passage in Endothelial Cell Growth Medium and shipped in Endothelial Cell Transfer Medium. T-25 Flask 201-25n $250.00
Proliferating HUVEC, neonatal T-75 Flask 201-75n $440.00
Proliferating HUVEC, neonatal 6 well 201-6Wn $440.00
Proliferating HUVEC, neonatal 96 well 201-96Wn $560.00

Proliferating HUVEC, pooled

Cat. #
Proliferating HUVEC, pooled Cultured at first passage in Endothelial Cell Growth Medium and shipped in Endothelial Cell Transfer Medium. T-25 Flask 201p-25n $185.00
Proliferating HUVEC, pooled T-75 Flask 201p-75n $375.00
Proliferating HUVEC, pooled 6 well 201p-6Wn $375.00
Proliferating HUVEC, pooled 96 well 201p-96Wn $495.00

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