Top: Western Blot detection of 11R-tagged reprogramming factors, including human c-Myc, KLF4, Oct4, and Sox2 proteins, using Polyarginine (9R) Antibody (Cat# CY1114). Middle: This antibody also stains Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDF)^ (Cat# 106-05a) transduced with the 11R-tagged reprogramming factors, human c-Myc, KLF4, Oct4, and Sox2 proteins (Right), but not untreated HDF (left), in immunofluorescent analysis. (^This cell was also used by Dr. Yamanaka\'s lab to generate the world\'s first iPS cells. See: Takahashi, K. et al: Cell 131:861-72, 2007.)
CPPs have proven to be very efficient in delivering molecules into cells that are refractory to transfection such as primary lymphocytes. Their penetration into cells is rapid and initially first-order, with half-times from 5 to 20 min. Recently, Dr. Sheng Ding’s lab designed and fused a poly-arginine (i.e., 11R) protein transduction domain to the C terminus of four reprogramming factors: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, and recombinant fusion proteins were made in E. coli. It was shown that the purified 11R-tagged recombinant transcription factors readily entered MEF cells which can be fully reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells (iPSs) by direct delivery of recombinant reprogramming proteins.3 It is well known that the potential of iPS cells is enormous. However, the clinical application of iPS cells faces many obstacles. One of the challenges is that since the cells are artificially created to have pluripotency by inducing genes, they are inclined to form tumors. Dr. Ding’s nongenetic approach eliminates any risk of modifying the target cell genome by exogenous genetic sequences, which are associated with all previous iPSC methods. Thus, polyarginine-tagged protein transduction method provides a more efficient way of producing safer iPS cells without tendency to form tumors. In addition to acting as novel vehicle for the translocation of cargo into cells, polyarginie peptide has been used in various other biological applications. It was reported that oligoarginine chain was coupled with oligodeoxynucleotide probe to produce peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates or peptide-bridged oligonucleotide pairs. These probe-peptide conjugates induce the oligodeoxynucleotides to bind complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA targets with substantially enhanced thermal stability, which will be useful in the development of antisense strategies.4
2. Sawant, R. & Torchilin, V.: Mol. BioSyst., 6:628-640, 2010
3. Zhou, H. et al: Cell Stem Cell 4:381-4, 2009
4. Wei, Z. et al: Nucl. Acids Res. 24:655-61, 1996
Short 9-mer arginine peptide coupled with KLH.
Species & predicted
reactivity ( ):
ICC 1:50 - 1:200
Weight of protein:
1 kDa + Target Protein
Detects 9R-tagged proteins without cross-reactivity with un-tagged proteins.
Store at -20°C, 4°C for frequent use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
*Optimal working dilutions must be determined by end user.